Plaque is the term used to describe the bacteria that colonize on the teeth. These bacteria are the root cause of dental cavities and periodontal disease. When these bacteria die, the calcium from your saliva hardens the dead bacteria forming hard deposit called calculus. During a dental cleaning the hygienist removes the plaque and calculus. Once calculus has formed no amount of brushing will remove these deposits. The long-term accumulation of these deposits is the primary cause of all dental disease. Once the bacteria have been removed, the hygienist then polishes the teeth, which reduces the bacteria's ability to bind to the teeth.

Periodontal disease occurs when the bacteria form localized infections in the crevice between the tooth and the gum. The gum and bone attachment will be pulled away causing a reduction in the support of the teeth. Then a periodontal scaling and root